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This image shows an example of layers in the Martian north polar deposits. These deposits, part of the Planum Boreum dome, are composed mainly of water ice and small amounts of dust.

The layers within these deposits are exposed by shallowly-sloping troughs that cut into them. This image is particularly interesting because it crosses complicated trough geometry, making the layers appear curved and exposing multiple stratigraphic levels.

Note that layers of different thicknesses are visible. Layer thickness is directly related to the accumulation rate of the layer; a higher accumulation rate will lead to a thicker layer. However, a myriad of factors work together to influence accumulation rate, such as the amount of sunlight reaching the surface and the amount of water in the contemporaneous atmosphere.
Stratigraphy of the North Polar Deposits
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Growing Library of Mars Spectrometer Images
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Image of Hesperia Planum from the HiRISE camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Hesperia Planum
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Deformation Bands in Martian Bedrock
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Clay Minerals in Mawrth Vallis Region of Mars
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Crater Floor Deposits in Promethei Terra
Crater Floor Deposits in Promethei Terra
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This map shows the thickness of the north polar layered deposits on Mars as measured by the Shallow Radar instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
How Thick is the North Polar Ice Cap on Mars?
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Eridania Basin Light-Toned Outcrops
Eridania Basin Light-Toned Outcrops
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Sample Noachis Terra
Sample Noachis Terra
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Phobos in Stereo
'Marsshine' on Shadowed Part of Phobos
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'Marsshine' on Shadowed Part of Phobos
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'Marsshine' on Shadowed Part of Phobos
Phobos from 5,800 Kilometers
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NASA Spacecraft Images Mars Moon in Color and in 3D
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Phobos from 6,800 Kilometers (Color)
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NASA Spacecraft Images Mars Moon in Color and in 3D
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Phobos from 5,800 Kilometers
Phobos from 6,800 Kilometers
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Phobos from 6,800 Kilometers
Phobos from 5,800 Kilometers (Color)
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Caught in Action: This image shows avalanches on North Polar Scarps.
Caught in Action: Avalanches on North Polar Scarps
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Chloride Salt Deposit in Southern Highlands of Mars
Bright Exposures of Chloride Salt on Southern Mars
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Bright Exposures of Chloride Salt on Southern Mars
Bright Exposures of Chloride Salt on Southern Mars
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Dust-Devil Tracks in Southern Schiaparelli Basin
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This observation shows a wrinkle ridge in Solis Planum, located in the Thaumasia region of Mars, a high-elevation volcanic plain located south of the Valles Marineris canyon system and east of the Tharsis volcanic complex. Solis Planum contains some of the most distinct and well studied arrays of wrinkle ridges on Mars.

Wrinkle ridges are long, winding topographic highs and are often characterized by a broad arch topped with a crenulated ridge. These features have been identified on many other planetary bodies such as the Moon, Mercury, and Venus. On Mars, they are many tens to hundreds of kilometers long, tens of kilometers wide, and have a relief of a few hundred meters. Wrinkle ridges are most commonly believed to form from horizontal compression or shortening of the crust due to faulting and are often located in volcanic plains. They commonly have asymmetrical cross sectional profiles and an offset in elevation on either side of the ridge. Large dunes are also visible bordering the wrinkle ridge.

The reddish colors seen in this image most likely indicate the presence of dust (or indurated dust) and the darker, bluish colors most likely indicate the presence of larger rocks and boulders on the wrinkle ridge.
Wrinkle Ridge in Solis Planum
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Global View of Candor Chasm Study Location
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Spectrometer on NASA Orbiter Maps Minerals at Possible Landing Sites
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Color Image of Nili Fossae Trough, a Candidate MSL Landing Site
Color Image of Layers in Holden Crater, a Candidate MSL Landing Site
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