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Radio Science (RS) using the Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO)



  1. Determine Profiles of Refractive Index, Number Density, Temperature and Pressure at up to 20 meters Vertical Resolution for the Lowest Few Scale Heights at High Latitudes in Both Hemispheres on a Daily Basis for a Martian Year
  2. Characterize the Small Scale Structure of the Atmosphere and Ionosphere


  1. Develop a Global, High-Resolution Model for the Gravitational Field
  2. Determine Both Local and Broad Scale Density Structure and Stress State of Martian Crust and Upper Mantle


Spacecraft Telecommunications subsystem supplemented with an Ultrastable Oscillator and elements of the DSN tracking stations


Science Team

G.L. Tyler, Stanford U. - Team Leader

Team Members:

G. Balmino - BGI (France)

D. Hinson - Stanford U.

E. Sjogren - JPL

D. Smith - NASA/GSFC

R. Woo - JPL