03.21.2017 Break in Raised Tread on Curiosity Wheel
02.27.2017 Swirling Dust in Gale Crater, Mars, Sol 1613
02.27.2017 Dust Devil Passes Near Martian Sand Dune
02.27.2017 Sand Moving Under Curiosity, One Day to Next
12.13.2016 Now and Long Ago at Gale Crater, Mars
12.13.2016 Where's Boron? Mars Rover Detects It
10.03.2016 Curiosity Self-Portrait at 'Murray Buttes'
10.03.2016 Butte 'M9a' in 'Murray Buttes' on Mars
09.19.2016 Ribbon Cutting
09.09.2016 Farewell to Murray Buttes (Image 5)
09.09.2016 Farewell to Murray Buttes (Image 4)
09.09.2016 Farewell to Murray Buttes (Image 3)
09.09.2016 Farewell to Murray Buttes (Image 2)
09.09.2016 Farewell to Murray Buttes (Image 1)
08.26.2016 Out-of-this-World Records
03.30.2016 Erisa Hines
03.30.2016 Buzz Aldrin
02.12.2016 Women in Science
02.09.2016 Adam Steltzner, a JPL engineer
01.27.2016 Night Close-up of Martian Sand Grains
01.27.2016 Curiosity Self-Portrait at Martian Sand Dune
12.17.2015 Alteration Effects at Gale and Gusev Craters
12.17.2015 Full-Circle View Near 'Marias Pass' on Mars
12.11.2015 Surface Close-up of a Martian Sand Dune
12.11.2015 Martian Sand Disturbed by Rover Wheel
Two Possible Ways Boron Got into Veins on Mount SharpThis graphic portrays two hypotheses about how the element boron ended up in calcium sulfate veins found within mudstone layers of the Murray formation on Mars' lower Mount Sharp.
Hypothesis A is presented left-to-right in the upper four panels; hypothesis B in the lower four. Note that the two final panels are identical, depicting conditions found by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. Calcium sulfate is the veins' main ingredient. The mudstone matrix around the veins resulted from deposition of sediments in a lake environment in Mars' Gale Crater billions of years ago.
In hypothesis A: (1) Boron dissolved in the lake and was incorporated into the lake bottom clays that became the Murray formation. (2) The lake then dried and the bedrock fractured. (3) Later groundwater interacted with the clays under conditions that released the boron into the groundwater. (4) Then, the boron was deposited along with the calcium sulfate that makes up the bulk of these veins.
In hypothesis B: (1) Boron was not incorporated into the clays as the lake was active. (2) Instead, when the lake dried out, it left a layer of boron-containing salts, and likely other types of salts, such as sodium chloride (table salt) and calcium sulfates, in an overlying layer that Curiosity has not yet visited. The bedrock fractured. (3) Groundwater later dissolved this layer of evaporite salts and moved the salts down into the older layers the rover has investigated. (4) The groundwater deposited the evaporite salts with the calcium sulfate that makes up the bulk of these veins.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL
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